Ozone in the lower part of the atmosphere acts as a greenhouse gas and is a major pollutant. Spirulina, an algae found in open sources of fresh and warm water, absorbs energy from the sun. Called solar food, spirulina contains phycocyanin that helps the plant absorb the full spectrum of light, allowing it to absorb more solar energy than other plants. It is often used as a dietary supplement, as it stimulates the production of red blood cells and can also protect cells against aging.
The amount of energy emitted by the Sun is a constant. Incoming solar radiation is known as insolation. The amount of solar energy reaching Earth is 70 percent. The Earth's surface absorbs 51 percent of insolation.
Water vapor and dust account for 16 percent of the energy absorbed. The other 3 percent is absorbed by clouds. Of the 30 percent reflected in space, 6 percent is reflected in air and dust. Clouds reflect 20 percent and the remaining 4 percent is reflected on the surface.
The energy that was absorbed can be re-radiated. Of the energy reradiated, 70 percent is lost to outer space. The surface is responsible for 21 percent of this, and the remaining 49 percent is lost to the atmosphere. The remaining 30 percent is transferred from the surface to the atmosphere.
About 23 percent of incoming solar energy is absorbed into the atmosphere by water vapor, dust and ozone, and 48 percent passes through the atmosphere and is absorbed by the surface. With the exception of passively heated structures (each house, no matter how badly built and poorly oriented, is a solar house), pre-industrial societies did not have the technical means to convert solar radiation into useful energy. The main function of the tower of a HAWT is to allow the capture of wind energy at a sufficient height above the ground, to safely absorb and discharge the static and dynamic stress exerted on the rotor, power train and nacelle on the ground. The amount of solar radiation received and absorbed also influences the process in the biosphere by directly affecting plants and other organisms that photosynthesize and are the main source of food in most ecosystems (see interactions between species).
The solar irradiance received by a particular location or body of water depends on the elevation above sea level, the angle of the sun (due to latitude, season and time of day), and scattering elements such as clouds 9.For monocrystalline (c-Si) and polycrystalline (Pc-Si) silicon solar cells, the efficiency decreases by approximately 0.45% for each degree of temperature increase.
sunlightis generally defined in units of radiation, since only half of the solar radiation reaching Earth is visible light, but all radiation provides energy. About 23% of incoming energy is absorbed into the atmosphere by atmospheric gases, dust and other particles. They can be used effectively to convert absorbed solar radiation into electricity and heat, thus increasing your total energy production.
Infrared radiation is easily absorbed by water and carbon dioxide molecules and converted into thermal energy 10. About 29 percent of the solar energy that reaches the top of the atmosphere is reflected back into space by clouds, atmospheric particles, or shiny ground surfaces, such as sea ice and snow. Energy reaching Earth is measured as solar irradiance (energy per second in one square meter). One identifiable way to think about solar irradiance is to look at the difference between a 20-watt bulb and a 100-watt bulb. The installation of a transparent cover over the absorbing surface results in a certain effect on transmission and absorption, which affects the optical efficiency of the system.
UV-B radiation (280-320 nm) is a band of energetic and photoactivating radiation that is only partially absorbed in stratosphere 1.However, the relative contribution of the atmosphere and the surface to each process (absorption of sunlight versus heat radiation) is asymmetrical. .