Solar thermal technologies are designed to convert incident solar radiation into usable heat. The solar heat conversion process involves the use of specially designed energy collectors, mirrors, lenses and heat exchangers, which would concentrate the sun's radiant energy and transfer it to a carrier fluid. Solar thermoelectric energy converters convert solar energy into thermal energy and then into electricity. The main advantage of these systems compared to photovoltaics is their ability to store energy in the form of heat without the need for a battery.
Solar thermoelectric converters can be used in many applications, ranging from remote off-grid power generation to waste heat collection. This process, also known as the Rankine cycle, is similar to that of a standard coal-fired power plant, except that it is powered by clean and free solar energy. Compared to sensitive thermal storage materials, latent thermal storage materials have a greater heat storage capacity and a narrower heat release temperature range, which can greatly increase the heat storage capacity and reduce the volume of the heat storage system storage. The obvious source of primary energy solar radiation is up there, and it is the task of researchers, engineers, manufacturers, legislators and society as a whole to capture it and minimize the impact of this movement.
Solar thermal energy (STE) is a form of energy and a technology for harnessing solar energy to generate thermal energy for use in industry and in the residential and commercial sectors. Co-production of CO and aluminum through solar carbothermal reduction of aluminum oxide has been discussed as a cleaner alternative to the energy-intensive electrochemical pathway through the Hall-Héroult process. In Europe, since the mid-1990s, around 125 large solar thermal district heating plants have been built, each with more than 500 m2 (5400 ft) of solar collectors. In this case, although the MSCM can efficiently convert incident solar energy into heat, the concealed heat is difficult to transfer downwards due to the low thermal conductivity of molten salts.
Such nitrate-based solar salts have many attractive characteristics, such as low cost, high heat capacity and low operating pressure. Therefore, low-quality heat may not be as favorable as electricity from the use of PV or TE because it requires a large volume of storage but cannot be converted into other forms of energy. Solar thermal collectors are classified by the U.S. Energy Information Administration as low, medium, or high temperature collectors.
Heat is transferred to a thermal storage medium in an insulated tank during the day and extracted for power generation during the night. The closed channel architecture encapsulates the solar thermal system within a greenhouse-like greenhouse. Geometrically, the ideal reflectors for use with individual solar energy receivers are continuous reflectors of parabolic or parabolic shape. A solar power tower system uses a large field of planar mirrors that track the sun, called heliostats, to reflect and concentrate sunlight on a receiver at the top of a tower.
Solar thermoelectric conversion technology, which converts solar energy into thermal energy and then into electricity, has been developed and implemented in many important fields. Then, the objective is to derive the average energy production of the CSP plant over the years, from the simulation of the solar system with this condensed annual series. .